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IRS.gov Website
Publication 590
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230977

Can You Contribute to
a Roth IRA?(p63)

rule
Generally, you can contribute to a Roth IRA if you have taxable compensation (defined later) and your modified AGI (defined later) is less than:
Tax Tip
You may be able to claim a credit for contributions to your Roth IRA. For more information, see chapter 4.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230980

Is there an age limit for contributions?(p64)

rule
Contributions can be made to your Roth IRA regardless of your age.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230981

Can you contribute to a Roth IRA for your spouse?(p64)

rule
You can contribute to a Roth IRA for your spouse provided the contributions satisfy the Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRA limit discussed in chapter 1 under How Much Can Be Contributed, you file jointly, and your modified AGI is less than $188,000.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230983

Compensation.(p64)

rule
Compensation includes wages, salaries, tips, professional fees, bonuses, and other amounts received for providing personal services. It also includes commissions, self-employment income, nontaxable combat pay, military differential pay, and taxable alimony and separate maintenance payments. For more information, see What Is Compensation? under Who Can Open a Traditional IRA? in chapter 1.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230985

Modified AGI.(p64)

rule
Your modified AGI for Roth IRA purposes is your adjusted gross income (AGI) as shown on your return with some adjustments. Use Worksheet 2-1 , later, to determine your modified AGI.
EIC
Do not subtract conversion income when figuring your other AGI-based phaseouts and taxable income, such as your deduction for medical and dental expenses. Subtract them from AGI only for the purpose of figuring your modified AGI for Roth IRA purposes.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230988

How Much Can Be Contributed?(p64)

rule
The contribution limit for Roth IRAs generally depends on whether contributions are made only to Roth IRAs or to both traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs.taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231013

Worksheet 2-1. Modified Adjusted Gross Income for Roth IRA Purposes

Use this worksheet to figure your modified adjusted gross income for Roth IRA purposes.

1.Enter your adjusted gross income from Form 1040, line 38; Form 1040A, line 22; or Form 1040NR, line 371.
2.Enter any income resulting from the conversion of an IRA (other than a Roth IRA) to a Roth IRA (included on Form 1040, line 15b, Form 1040A, line 11b, or Form 1040NR, line 16b) and a rollover from a qualified retirement plan to a Roth IRA (included on Form 1040, line 16b, Form 1040A, line 12b, or Form 1040NR, line 17b) 2.
3.Subtract line 2 from line 13.
4.Enter any traditional IRA deduction from Form 1040, line 32; Form 1040A, line 17; or Form 1040NR, line 324.
5.Enter any student loan interest deduction from Form 1040, line 33; Form 1040A, line 18; or Form 1040NR, line 33 5.
6.Enter any tuition and fees deduction from Form 1040, line 34, or Form 1040A, line 196.
7.Enter any domestic production activities deduction from Form 1040, line 35, or Form 1040NR, line 347.
8.Enter any foreign earned income exclusion and/or housing exclusion from Form 2555, line 45, or Form 2555-EZ, line 188.
9.Enter any foreign housing deduction from Form 2555, line 509.
10.Enter any excludable qualified savings bond interest from Form 8815, line 1410.
11.Enter any excluded employer-provided adoption benefits from Form 8839, line 2811.
12.Add the amounts on lines 3 through 11 12.
13.Enter:
  • $188,000 if married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er),
  • $10,000 if married filing separately and you lived with your spouse at any time during the year, or
  • $127,000 for all others
13.
Is the amount on line 12 more than the amount on line 13?
If yes, see the note below.
If no, the amount on line 12 is your modified adjusted gross income for Roth IRA purposes.
  
 Note. If the amount on line 12 is more than the amount on line 13 and you have other income or loss items, such as social security income or passive activity losses, that are subject to AGI-based phaseouts, you can refigure your AGI solely for the purpose of figuring your modified AGI for Roth IRA purposes. (If you receive social security benefits, use Worksheet 1 in Appendix B to refigure your AGI.) Then go to line 3 above in this Worksheet 2-1 to refigure your modified AGI. If you do not have other income or loss items subject to AGI-based phaseouts, your modified adjusted gross income for Roth IRA purposes is the amount on line 12 above.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230998

Roth IRAs only.(p64)

rule
If contributions are made only to Roth IRAs, your contribution limit generally is the lesser of:
However, if your modified AGI is above a certain amount, your contribution limit may be reduced, as explained later under Contribution limit reduced.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231001

Roth IRAs and traditional IRAs.(p64)

rule
If contributions are made to both Roth IRAs and traditional IRAs established for your benefit, your contribution limit for Roth IRAs generally is the same as your limit would be if contributions were made only to Roth IRAs, but then reduced by all contributions for the year to all IRAs other than Roth IRAs. Employer contributions under a SEP or SIMPLE IRA plan do not affect this limit.
This means that your contribution limit is the lesser of:
However, if your modified AGI is above a certain amount, your contribution limit may be reduced, as explained below under Contribution limit reduced.
Simplified employee pensions (SEPs) are discussed in Publication 560. Savings incentive match plans for employees (SIMPLEs) are discussed in chapter 3.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231008

Repayment of reservist distributions.(p64)

rule
You can repay qualified reservist distributions even if the repayments would cause your total contributions to the Roth IRA to be more than the general limit on contributions. However, the total repayments cannot be more than the amount of your distribution.
Note.If you make repayments of qualified reservist distributions to a Roth IRA, increase your basis in the Roth IRA by the amount of the repayment. For more information, see Qualified reservist repayments under How Much Can Be Contributed? in chapter 1.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231012

Contribution limit reduced.(p64)

rule
If your modified AGI is above a certain amount, your contribution limit is gradually reduced. Use Table 2-1, later, to determine if this reduction applies to you.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000230989

Table 2-1. Effect of Modified AGI on Roth IRA Contribution

This table shows whether your contribution to a Roth IRA is affected by the amount of your modified adjusted gross income (modified AGI).

IF you have taxable compensation
and your filing status is ...
AND your modified AGI is ... THEN ...
married filing jointly or
qualifying widow(er)
less than $178,000you can contribute up to $5,500 ($6,500 if you are age 50 or older) as explained under How Much Can Be Contributed.
at least $178,000
but less than $188,000
the amount you can contribute is reduced as explained under Contribution limit reduced.
$188,000 or moreyou cannot contribute to a Roth IRA.
married filing separately and
you lived with your spouse at any
time during the year
zero (-0-)you can contribute up to $5,500 ($6,500 if you are age 50 or older) as explained under How Much Can Be Contributed.
more than zero (-0-)
but less than $10,000
the amount you can contribute is reduced as explained under Contribution limit reduced.
$10,000 or more you cannot contribute to a Roth IRA.
single,
head of household,
or married filing separately and
you did not live with your spouse
at any time during the year
less than $112,000you can contribute up to $5,500 ($6,500 if you are age 50 or older) as explained under How Much Can Be Contributed.
at least $112,000
but less than $127,000
the amount you can contribute is reduced as explained under Contribution limit reduced.
$127,000 or moreyou cannot contribute to a Roth IRA.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231015
Figuring the reduction.(p64)
If the amount you can contribute must be reduced, use Worksheet 2-2, later, to figure your reduced contribution limit.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231016

Worksheet 2-2. Determining Your Reduced Roth IRA Contribution Limit

Before using this worksheet, check Table 2-1, earlier, to determine whether or not your Roth IRA contribution limit is reduced. If it is, use this worksheet to determine how much it is reduced.

1.Enter your modified AGI for Roth IRA purposes (Worksheet 2-1, line 12) 1.
2.Enter:
  • $178,000 if filing a joint return or qualifying widow(er),
  • $-0- if married filing a separate return and you lived with your spouse at any time in 2013, or
  • $112,000 for all others
2.
3.Subtract line 2 from line 13.
4.Enter:
  • $10,000 if filing a joint return or qualifying widow(er) or married filing a separate return and you lived with your spouse at any time during the year, or
  • $15,000 for all others
4.
5.Divide line 3 by line 4 and enter the result as a decimal (rounded to at least three places). If the result is 1.000 or more, enter 1.000 5.
6.Enter the lesser of:
  • $5,500 ($6,500 if you are age 50 or older), or
  • Your taxable compensation
6.
7.Multiply line 5 by line 67.
8.Subtract line 7 from line 6. Round the result up to the nearest $10. If the result is less than $200, enter $2008.
9.Enter contributions for the year to other IRAs9.
10.Subtract line 9 from line 610.
11.Enter the lesser of line 8 or line 10. This is your reduced Roth IRA contribution limit 11.
Tax Tip
Round your reduced contribution limit up to the nearest $10. If your reduced contribution limit is more than $0, but less than $200, increase the limit to $200.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231019

Example.(p64)

You are a 45-year-old, single individual with taxable compensation of $113,000. You want to make the maximum allowable contribution to your Roth IRA for 2013. Your modified AGI for 2013 is $113,000. You have not contributed to any traditional IRA, so the maximum contribution limit before the modified AGI reduction is $5,500. You figure your reduced Roth IRA contribution of $5,140 as shown on Worksheet 2-2. Example—Illustrated, later.

taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231020

Worksheet 2-2. Example—Illustrated

Before using this worksheet, check Table 2-1, earlier, to determine whether or not your Roth IRA contribution limit is reduced. If it is, use this worksheet to determine how much it is reduced.

1.Enter your modified AGI for Roth IRA purposes (Worksheet 2-1, line 12)1.113,000
2.Enter:
  • $178,000 if filing a joint return or qualifying widow(er),
  • $-0- if married filing a separate return and you lived with your spouse at any time in 2013, or
  • $112,000 for all others
2.112,000
3.Subtract line 2 from line 13.1,000
4.Enter:
  • $10,000 if filing a joint return or qualifying widow(er) or married filing a separate return and you lived with your spouse at any time during the year, or
  • $15,000 for all others
4.15,000
5.Divide line 3 by line 4 and enter the result as a decimal (rounded to at least three places). If the result is 1.000 or more, enter 1.000 5..067
6.Enter the lesser of:
  • $5,500 ($6,500 if you are age 50 or older), or
  • Your taxable compensation
6.5,500
7.Multiply line 5 by line 67.369
8.Subtract line 7 from line 6. Round the result up to the nearest $10. If the result is less than $200, enter $2008.5,140
9.Enter contributions for the year to other IRAs9.0
10.Subtract line 9 from line 610.5,500
11.Enter the lesser of line 8 or line 10. This is your reduced Roth IRA contribution limit 11.5,140
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231022

When Can You Make Contributions?(p64)

rule
You can make contributions to a Roth IRA for a year at any time during the year or by the due date of your return for that year (not including extensions).
Tax Tip
You can make contributions for 2013 by the due date (not including extensions) for filing your 2013 tax return. This means that most people can make contributions for 2013 by April 15, 2014.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231024

What if You Contribute Too Much?(p67)

rule
A 6% excise tax applies to any excess contribution to a Roth IRA.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231025

Excess contributions.(p67)

rule
These are the contributions to your Roth IRAs for a year that equal the total of:
  1. Amounts contributed for the tax year to your Roth IRAs (other than amounts properly and timely rolled over from a Roth IRA or properly converted from a traditional IRA or rolled over from a qualified retirement plan, as described later) that are more than your contribution limit for the year (explained earlier under How Much Can Be Contributed?), plus
  2. Any excess contributions for the preceding year, reduced by the total of:
    1. Any distributions out of your Roth IRAs for the year, plus
    2. Your contribution limit for the year minus your contributions to all your IRAs for the year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231027
Withdrawal of excess contributions.(p67)
For purposes of determining excess contributions, any contribution that is withdrawn on or before the due date (including extensions) for filing your tax return for the year is treated as an amount not contributed. This treatment only applies if any earnings on the contributions are also withdrawn. The earnings are considered earned and received in the year the excess contribution was made.
If you timely filed your 2013 tax return without withdrawing a contribution that you made in 2013, you can still have the contribution returned to you within 6 months of the due date of your 2013 tax return, excluding extensions. If you do, file an amended return with "Filed pursuant to section 301.9100-2" written at the top. Report any related earnings on the amended return and include an explanation of the withdrawal. Make any other necessary changes on the amended return.
taxmap/pubs/p590-015.htm#en_us_publink1000231028

Applying excess contributions.(p68)

rule
If contributions to your Roth IRA for a year were more than the limit, you can apply the excess contribution in one year to a later year if the contributions for that later year are less than the maximum allowed for that year.